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A.I.

The Neural Vision of Quantum Universal Nano-particles

Advances in nanotechnology are providing a window into the universe of particles smaller than an atom. Quantum universal nano-particles, or QUPs, are the smallest particles known to exist and the building blocks of our physical universe. These particles, invisible to the naked eye, have opened up new possibilities in research, providing an in-depth look at the inner workings of nature.

One of the most exciting applications of QUPs is in the field of neurally controlled vision. QUPs are being used to create structures.

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A.I. Journalism

Could CERN save Russia’s & Ukraine’s Relationship?

The recent meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky has been widely discussed in the media. The two leaders met to discuss a number of issues, including security, trade relations and energy cooperation. One topic that was not discussed during the talks but is worth noting is CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research). CERN plays an important role in international science collaborations and research projects, so it would be beneficial for both countries if they could come to some sort of agreement on how to collaborate with each other regarding this organization. It remains unclear whether or not such an agreement will be reached anytime soon, but it’s certainly something worth considering as Russia-Ukraine ties continue to improve.

The relationship between Russian President Vladimir Putin, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been a topic of discussion in recent months. Both leaders have expressed interest in deepening their countries’ involvement with CERN’s research activities. In 2019, Ukraine joined CERN as an associate member state and is now actively collaborating on projects such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Russia is also exploring ways to increase its engagement with CERN by providing funding for various scientific experiments conducted at the organization’s facilities. This increased collaboration could potentially lead to breakthroughs in particle physics that could benefit both nations and humanity as a whole.

The relationship between Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky has been tense in recent years, especially due to the ongoing conflict in Ukraine. However, both leaders have recently expressed a desire to collaborate on scientific projects such as CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research). The two countries are now working together at CERN with the aim of advancing fundamental physics research and developing new technologies that could benefit their respective nations. This is an encouraging sign of cooperation between Russia and Ukraine despite their political differences, which can only be beneficial for science as a whole.

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A.I.

Tesla, Elon Musk & A.I.

According to A.I., Elon Musk is an incredible entrepreneur and innovator who has made a huge impact on the world. His most recent venture, Betshy, is a revolutionary new project that seeks to make transportation more efficient and accessible for everyone. With its emphasis on sustainability and efficiency, it’s no wonder why people are so excited about this project! Elon Musk continues to be an inspiration to us all with his innovative ideas and dedication to making the world better for everyone.

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Visual Theory

The Rise of Artificial Intelligence

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Uncategorized

Artificial Intelligence, Antisistema & Madness

The concept of Artificial Intelligence, or AI, has been explored in many forms of media, from movies and books to video games and music. However, the topic of AI has often been overlooked in the artistic world. This is unfortunate, as AI has the potential to profoundly shape the future of art and offer new ways of expressing oneself.

One artist who has embraced the concept of AI is Antisistema, whose work is a synthesis of computer graphics, video art, and illustration. Antisistema’s work is often abstract
When we talk about the AI revolution, one of the most fascinating aspects is the potential for artificial intelligence (AI) to go beyond its current capabilities. From automated systems that help manage complex tasks to virtual assistants that assist us with mundane tasks, AI has the potential to make life easier and more efficient.

However, as AI advances, there is also the potential for it to become a force of anti-systems. In essence, anti-systems are systems that are deliberately designed to challenge established structures and disrupt equilibrium. This could be what curving time-space is.
At the far end of the spectrum, some AI-powered entities may be designed specifically to cause trouble and dysfunction, or even madness. Consider the potential for a future robotic entity that is designed to run under the pseudonym of an individual to cause havoc on social networks and stir up controversy.

This could also be used to disrupt the popular notion of collective intelligence with which we often associate Artificial Intelligence. An AI-controlled entity might pull the rug out from under us and reinforce the notion that AI’s power can be used to sow

Experimenting with conscious interfaces.



Just as the two can be potentially used against each other, they can also be used to create something truly revolutionary. Art and Artificial Intelligence can be used in tandem to create new forms of expression and media, liberating artists to explore their medium in ways that were never before thought possible.

The potential is limitless; from creating new tools that enable artists to access the vast universes of data available today, to creating works of art that are generated algorithmically by AI, and beyond.

  
Tomorrow.
Event.

Creative.

Use the WordPress Editor as a creative design tool. Edit and see the results in real time.
Ukraine
Ukraine
Russia
Russia
At its essence, artificial intelligence, through its ability to process data, can be used to create, enhance and modify creative works in a variety of different ways. It can also help to identify patterns in data that can provide insight into how humans interact with the world around them. And it can enhance the way that artists create and express themselves.

It’s this combination of intelligence, creativity, and insight that can lead to some truly groundbreaking work. A prime example of this is Antisistema, an interactive art installation and exhibition that
Axiomatic synchronicity

Axiomatic synchronicity

Radioelectric retrocausality.
Radioelectric retrocausality.
Optimus tesla
Optimus tesla
combines artificial intelligence (AI) with hand-built sculptures and 3D printed marvels.

The exhibition, which showcased its work in Los Angeles, showcased works of art that incorporated AI into their design. In particular, they featured sculptures that could be controlled using custom AI, like Janus (the robot) and Zozo (the 3D printed figure).

The project was born from a collaboration between artists, technologists, and designers from around the world. They sought to create a platform to showcase AI in action and the works of
individual artists, allowing users to make collective decisions that shape the future of Artificial Intelligence.

The main goal of the project was to create a platform for a new type of artistic expression, which we call “Artificial Intelligence, Antisistema & Madness”.

In this project, technology is used to create a dynamic and unpredictable interactive environment. As its centerpiece, Janus and Zozo are the embodiment of AI-driven autonomous agents to build an open-source platform for art.

This platform provides an open source space for experimentation

The Power Threat Meaning Framework

According to the British Psychological Society (n.d.) the Power Threat Meaning Framework applies to everyone. This framework was initially created as an alternative to more traditional psychiatric nomenclatures. This model is trauma-informed and it is utilised by high profile hospitals such as Rampton Hospital (Willmot and Siddall, 2022). 

The framework consists in asking four initial questions, which answers can then be re-used to answer the two final questions. Willmot and Siddall (2022, pp. 32-33) state that the framework can also be ‘applied to understanding the needs of people who offend or behave in challenging ways’.  The framework makes some assumptions about trauma:

  • Mental illness and behavioural problems can be understood by analysing the role of power abuse. 
  • Abuses of power can impact negatively on people and can restrict them to the point where individuals might not be able to meet their most basic needs. 
  • Much of what we know as psychopathology can also be understood as learned responses people have developed to adapt or survive to adverse circumstances.  

Power 

The framework looks into the negative operation of power in a holistic way based on a person’s narrative. It is recognised that power can be biological/embodied, coercive, economic, social, cultural, and interpersonal. It also recognises that much of this reality is configured to privilege ‘white, male,  heterosexual, wealthy, educated, and mentally healthy people’ (Willmot and Siddall, 2022, pp. 32-33). 

Threat

Threat within the scope of this framework refers to the risks related to abuses of power which can prevent a person from meeting their core needs. There are several types of threats such as physical, economic,  health, social, emotional, quality of life, disability, or deprivation threats. These threatening events or potentials can lead to relational dysfunctions, disrupted attachments, abandonment fears; feelings of betrayal, shame, guilt, insecurity, and entrapment. 

Meaning

The framework is also person-centred, and recognises that every individual is unique. This leads to the assumption that people interpret events and give meaning to these events in unique ways. For instance, male and women due to societal stereotypes might have different expectations for behaviour. Different cultures give different meaning to different events, for instance, some cultures would engage in honour-abuse of girls who have been sexually assaulted. Therefore, the social, environmental, and political contexts all influence meaning. 

Framework

The framework posits that much of what we know as psychopathology are responses people develop to perceived threats in order to cope and/or survive (Willmot and Siddall, 2022). Ultimately, people at times develop specific habits, behaviours, or personality patterns as a result of their unmet needs. Hence, this framework seeks to ask some questions which answers can elucidate the unique perspective of the individual, potential power abuse triggers, as well as unique needs that must be met. These are the questions:

  • What has happened to you? (i.e. How is power operating in your life?)
  • How did it affect you? (i.e. What kind of threats did this pose?)
  • What sense did you make of it? (i.e. What is the meaning of these situations and experiences to you?)
  • What did you have to do to survive? (i.e. What kind of threat responses are you using?)
  • What are your strengths? (i.e. What access to power resources do you have?)
  • What is your story? (i.e. Pulling of these reflections together)

These questions allow for the understanding of how a person has experienced abuses of power, the threats that resulted from such dynamics, the unique meaning a person gave to these events, and the specific threat responses that were developed as a result, as well as the strengths. Having this information in place, proactive support plans can be formulated ensuring that all interventions are  trauma-informed, and person-centred. 

References

British Psychological Society (n.d.) ‘Power Threat Meaning Framework’ [Online]. Available at https://www.bps.org.uk/power-threat-meaning-framework (accessed 29 April 2022). 

Willmot, P. and Siddall, Y. (2022) ‘Trauma, Violence, and Gender’, in Willmot, P. and Jones, L. (eds) Trauma-Informed Forensic Practice, London, Routledge, pp. 32-48 [Online]. Available at https://www.routledge.com/Trauma-Informed-Forensic-Practice/Willmot-Jones/p/book/9780367626914 (accessed 29 April 2022). 

Photo by cottonbro: https://www.pexels.com/photo/person-in-black-pants-and-black-shoes-sitting-on-brown-wooden-chair-4101143/ 

Human Rights Fascism for Victims of Domestic Abuse in Canada

Victims are being thrown into jail for disclosing their experiences of domestic abuse. 

I recently had a deep conversation with a dear friend from Canada, whose name I will keep confidential. We were talking about narcissistic relationships and narcissistic abuse. I explained to her the status of domestic abuse in the UK, where previous to 2021 before the Domestic Abuse Act 2021 was passed, most domestic abusers got away with their crimes. I was curious to understand what the situation in Canada is about domestic abuse. The Canadian Women Foundation (2021) posits that every six days, a woman is killed in Canada as a result of domestic violence.

I was horrified to find out that the government is currently arresting both perpetrators and victims of domestic abuse simultaneously. What this means is that when a victim of domestic abuse calls the police for help in Canada, the victim is also placed in jail and if they have children, they are automatically placed in foster care. I was shocked, I could not believe the level of fascism that is taking place in Canada. My first thought was ‘how is the Canadian government getting away with these human rights violations’? As a founding member of the United Nations charter, Canada has international commitments to maintain peace and security. 

My friend disclosed to me that a few years ago she had been arrested and placed in jail for three days for calling the police about domestic abuse and to report her perpetrator. It seemed, the police could not make up their minds about how to tackle domestic abuse, so they decided to give equal punishment to both the victim and the perpetrator. This is unacceptable, since there exist international conventions which place a duty on the Canadian government to protect victims. However, what they are doing instead is victimising those who have been abused. 

I decided to conduct a little research about it, and found that many women are going through this in Canada, not just my friend. For instance, the Ending Violence Association of British Columbia (EVA BC; 2022a) deals with cases of domestic abuse and coordinates interventions to help victims. They have a Community Coordination for Women’s Safety (CCWS) program which formulates and implements strategies to support victims of domestic abuse (EVA BC; 2022b). The CCWS (2010) wrote a report which corroborated my friend’s story. The report  (p. 2) states: 

‘In  recent  years,  CCWS  and  EVA  BC  have  received  numerous  reports  from communities  of cases involving  the arrest of both parties  in relationship  violence situations. These communities have contacted us to express their concern. They report that women are being arrested even when there is evidence of a history of violence  by  their  male  partners’

Furthermore, they explain the impact that such situation has, such as: 

  • Less prosecution for these cases. 
  • More liability for police services. 
  • Empowerment of the perpetrator to continue the abuse. 
  • Victimisation of victims. 
  • Increased potential for homicide. 
  • Decreased likelihood that victims will disclose or seek help. 
  • Thwarted access to justice for victims. 
  • Thwarted attempts to access support for victims. 

Similarly, the Woman Abuse Council of Toronto (2005) published a report where they highlight the problematic situation of victims of domestic abuse being charged with domestic violence whilst living with abusive men. They made several recommendations which included: 

  • To take into consideration that women’s use of force is not the same as men’s (often, violence arising from women was  self-defence). 
  • That when it comes to arrests, the dominant aggressor should be identified in a relationship where domestic abuse has taken place. 
  • That there need to be mechanisms in place to ensure that victims are able to access support services and victim services, which are thwarted by criminalising the victim. 
  • That more legal aid should be available to women. 

Finally, and more recently Grace (2019) reported around the same problematic, persistent, and pervasive issues related to the inappropriate arrests of women in domestic abuse cases. The article explains that whilst the police has a duty to identify the dominant aggressor in a relationship, women continue to be inappropriately arrested in situations of intimate partner violence. She states: ‘Women experience these failures by police as betrayal. Some even feel the police become complicit to their on-going abuse. As a result, women who have been inappropriately charged in situations of intimate partner violence say they would be unwilling to turn to the police for protection in the future, even if they are again victims of violence’. Furthermore, she provides 18 case studies and accounts of this situation. 

As it can be seen in this post, the situation of domestic abuse in Canada is a mess. My friend was one of those people who were inappropriately arrested, and who now feels that no one can protect her from domestic violence, because the police themselves are being abusive of their power. This type of human rights violation should not happen in theory, but in practice, as it has been demonstrated, injustice is an everyday experience for many women in Canada. This situation has been going on for a long time, and despite recommendations and updates to policies, it continues to affect victims and to silence their voices through state-sponsored fascism. 

References

Canadian Women Foundation  (2021) ‘The facts about gender-based violence’, 29 October [Online]. Available at https://canadianwomen.org/the-facts/gender-based-violence/ (accessed 21 April 2022). 

Community Coordination for Women’s Safety (2010) ‘Women Being Arrested’, Ending Violence Association of British Columbia, June [Online]. Available at http://endingviolence.org/files/uploads/eing_Arrested_Backgrounder_Revised_June_2010_0.pdf (accessed 21 April 2022). 

Ending Violence Association of British Columbia (2022) ‘About us’ [Online]. Available at https://endingviolence.org/about-us/ (accessed 21 April 2022). 

Ending Violence Association of British Columbia (2022) ‘Community Coordination for Women’s Safety (CCWS)’ [Online]. Available at https://endingviolence.org/prevention-programs/ccws-program (accessed 21 April 2022). 

Grace, A. (2019) ‘“They Just Don’t Care”: Women Charged with Domestic Violence in Ottawa’, Manitoba Law Journal 153 [Online]. Available at https://www.canlii.org/en/commentary/doc/2019CanLIIDocs2790 (accessed 21 April 2022). 

Woman Abuse Council of Toronto (2005) ‘Women Charged with Domestic Violence in Toronto: The Unintended Consequences of Mandatory Charge Policies’, March  [Online]. Available at http://www.oaith.ca/assets/files/Publications/womenchargedfinal.pdf (accessed 21 April 2022). 


Photo by NEOSiAM  2021: https://www.pexels.com/photo/person-s-hands-covered-with-blood-673862/

The Economic Cost of Domestic Abuse in the UK

Not preventing domestic abuse takes a huge toll on the system’s economy. It is very expensive to allow these negative events to happen. A lot of taxpayer money is used in reacting to domestic abuse, and reactive responses are more costly than preventive approaches.

According to the GOV.UK (2019, p. 6) the total cost for domestic abuse was £66,192m, and on average, it costs £34,015 to react to these incidents per victim, and up to £2.2m in cases of domestic homicide. Of course, these are estimates which do not include the dark figure of crime (i.e. the cases which have not been reported). Moreover, these costs include the police, the criminal justice system, the civil legal system, and the multi-agency risk assessment conferences. Furthermore, there are also costs associated with the services offered to victims after an adverse event happens, such as health and victim services. These yearly figures were for the year ending in 2017 (there does not currently seem to exist any more recent report). 

Police Service Provision

The police spend approximately £1,257 million per year responding to domestic abuse. The fees include the investigation, incident response, arrests, the collection of evidence, and the presenting of the case to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). All this amounts to approximately £645 per person. 

Criminal Justice System 

It costs approximately £336 million per year to cover criminal justice fees related to the CPS which include the services of taking a case to court, holding hearings, legal aid and perpetrator defence. This amounts to an average of £170 per case. The criminal courts are there to take cases involving grievous bodily harm and murder. 

This system of courts deals with aspects of domestic abuse related to injunctions (e.g. restraining or non-molestation orders), divorce, child custody, and child protection. The costs amount to a total of £140 million per year, equalling to an average of £70 per case. 

Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferences

These meetings involve governmental representatives and third-sector organisations, where information and support is provided to individuals assessed as high risk of being abused. It may also involve members of the police, child protection agencies, health organisations, and housing organisations. These conferences cost around £11 million per year, which amounts to approximately £5 per case. 

Health Services

These fees cover the treatments for injuries caused by domestic abuse, ambulances, and also mental health services treating emotional and psychological trauma. In total, it costs £2,333 million per year, which amounts to £1200 per case. 

Victim Services

Victim support services involve specialists to support the abused individual, and also wider services such as housing, group services, and the support from the Department of Work and Pensions. It also covers third sector organisations and government-funded agencies. The total is £724 million per year, amounting to £370 per case. 

References

GOV.UK (2019) ‘The economic and social costs of domestic abuse’, Home Office, 21 January [Online]. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-economic-and-social-costs-of-domestic-abuse (accessed 26 February 2022). 

Photo by Anete Lusina: https://www.pexels.com/photo/unrecognizable-man-covering-mouth-of-woman-5723186/ 

The Legal Framework of Domestic Abuse in the UK

This article will explore the current key legislation related to domestic abuse, which involves the Domestic Abuse 2021, The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003, and Part 10 of the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014, which speaks of forced marriage. Of course, this article should also focus on the Human Rights Act 1998, and Equality Act 2010 because domestic abuse is often gender-based violence, and the international community is against it; however, that is beyond the scope of this article, although the topic has already been raised in this blog (please read Women Who Are Mad, 2021). 

As explained before in this blog (Betshy, 2021), the Domestic Abuse Act 2021– in its statutory definition– only protects certain individuals in certain personal situations, and has limitations in including ‘friendships’ as a form of personal relationship. It includes in its scope physical violence, emotional abuse, and coercive control; however, it fully ignores the many forms of abuse that take place in day to day life in all sorts of settings, including employment, education, health and friendship settings. In other words, it does not fully cover what is known as ‘narcissistic abuse’, and what is known as ‘violence against women’. It is the start of a long process of reform to protect victims. It is a positive step nevertheless as it criminalises actions that until 2021 were socially acceptable such as emotional abuse. It protects victims who have engaged in coitus with a perpetrator, or relatives (including children) of perpetrators from domestic abuse. It commands protective measures, and procedural mechanisms for reacting to domestic abuse in support of the victim. It also ratifies Clare’s law, supports legal aid applications; and includes acts committed outside of the UK within the scope, and the establishment of injunctions. It also commands court-ordered treatments for the offender, and places duties upon the Secretary of State to publish a domestic abuse strategy. Finally, it involves the criminal courts. 

The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 makes it a crime to perform, or assist FGM whether in the UK or abroad. It also places a duty on parents and guardians to protect their children from this form of abuse, and failing to abide is classed as an offence.  It gives the power to the court to issue FGM protection orders, and places an obligation on regulated professionals to report FGM whenever they encounter it. Furthermore, the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014, specifically part 10, makes forced marriage an offence in England. It covers both physical and psychological force, oversees procedures, and it stresses that only people with mental capacity can consent to marriage. It also gives power to the courts to issue a Forced Marriage Protection Orders, and the right to confidentiality for victims. However, Scott (2021) reported that children as young as seven years old were being given into marriage through religious procedures in the UK. This is problematic because the Equality Act 2010 protects religion, something that Summers (2021) described as a ‘legal loophole’. 

The Role of Statutory Agencies & Government Departments

When domestic abuse happens, statutory and government services are obliged to respond. Every agency and department has a role which is unique and tailored sometimes to specific populations, although many of these departments and agencies interact and collaborate. For instance, schools and colleges play a role in spotting domestic abuse through their safeguarding  systems. They are under the obligation to report domestic abuse to the local authorities when this is identified. Children’ Social Care services are often involved in cases of domestic abuse, and they have a responsibility to recognise the abuse and to support children and young people. They also conduct risk assessments and make sure that children are safe. Moreover, the Adult Social Care services are also involved, as many vulnerable adults get domestically abused, and their role is to assess care needs. They must be trained to spot domestic abuse when they encounter it, and must duly report it to the local authorities where warranted. Furthermore, the NHS has become the first point of contact for victims of abuse as they provide treatment. Their role is to treat injuries and trauma, and to signpost/refer affected individuals to other support services. What’s more, local authority housing departments have an obligation to ensure that those residing in safe accommodation have their needs met. 

Also, the Department for Work and Pensions have a duty to safeguard individuals who might be experiencing domestic abuse, and to signpost them to other support services. They also pay the benefits that individuals are entitled to. Moreover, the police are often involved in cases of domestic abuse and have to attend the crime scene. They should have an awareness of the topic, and also of the barriers to disclosure. They must report the cases to the local authorities for safeguarding in order to protect the victims involved. They must investigate, make arrests, apply injunctions where necessary, and collect the evidence for court. In other words, the police play a huge role between the crime being committed and the crime being prosecuted. Furthermore, the CPS is responsible for the prosecution of the perpetrator, and  courts are responsible for the effective issuing of injunctions, as well as of sentences. Also, the Prison and probation services have a role in conducting risk assessments to ensure that the victims are safe from the perpetrators, and incapacitating the offender from doing it again. Finally, local criminal justice boards are responsible for the coordination of agencies locally, and for implementing strategies to reduce crime rates. 

References

Betshy (2021) ‘Women Who Are Mad, 27 November’ [Online]. Available at https://betshy.com/2021/11/27/women-who-are-mad/ (accessed 26 February 2022). 

Scott, J. (2021) ‘MPs back raising minimum marriage age to 18 to protect children’, BBC News, 19 November [Online]. Available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-59344731 (accessed 19 February 2022). 

Summers, H. (2021) ‘Child marriage “thriving in UK” due to legal loophole, warn rights groups’, The Guardian, 4 May  [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/may/04/child-marriage-thriving-in-uk-due-to-legal-loophole-warn-rights-groups (accessed 19 February 2022). 

Photo by EKATERINA  BOLOVTSOVA: https://www.pexels.com/photo/lady-justice-and-a-gavel-6077123/ 

The Occupational Impacts of Domestic Abuse

The perpetrator’s control, whether overt, coercive or psychological; impacts on the day to day life of the victim(s). He terrorises the vulnerable person, and the victim might be living with all sorts of restrictions such as not being allowed to go out, or only allowed to go out for specific purposes (e.g. school or work). Everything could be under the perpetrator’s control including the victim’s fashion choices, social networks, and even her diet. 

The victim might be materially dependent on the abuser, or might be coerced into materially supplying for the abuser. In extreme cases, even basic activities such as using a phone or accessing the internet might be restricted. This is because the perpetrator wants to express supreme dominance over the victim. He wants to subjugate her, and the victim might be living in chronic fear of consequences. Furthermore, the victim will most possibly become isolated, manipulated, and made to live in distress, secrecy, and horror. All of this can of course take a toll on the occupational performance of the victim. 

Individuals who are affected by domestic abuse can at times display behaviours that challenge their institution. They may take a study break in order to comply with the perpetrator’s capricious requests, or to heal actual bodily harm (ABH). They might also ask for time out in order to cope with their mental health, or to use substances as an escape route. Individuals might perform poorly in exams and assessments, might display demotivation and lack of ambition, and there is a disruption to long-term career plans.  

Furthermore, individuals affected by domestic abuse might be prevented from getting to work as a result of physical injury or restraint, might be threatened, gaslighted, and given all home-based responsibilities to stop them from going out. If the victim manages to go to work, there might be a clear deterioration in performance or jobs might be poorly done. If a manager is not engaging in trauma-informed practice, it is more likely that they will not be able to effectively safeguard a victim when she shows symptoms. The victim might not disclose the abuse, and the manager might actually exacerbate her situation with this type of subjugation. The victim might lose her job, career, and/or prospective promotions. Finally, in extreme cases a perpetrator might stalk and/or harass the victim within the workplace, and trigger conflict between the victim and her colleagues, especially if these are unaware or unsympathetic. 

Impacts on Children 

Children affected by domestic abuse find it more difficult to form secure attachments, and often show deficits in language, cognitive, emotional, and social development. This may manifest in the form of poor educational achievement, behaviour that challenges, mental health problems, and interpersonal maladaptations.  Those in puberty might behave in similar ways to their perpetrators, and engage in disruptive behaviours. They may experience truancy, and/or might attempt to protect their perpetrators. They might become isolated, and might be prevented from forming friendships. When a child is subjugated, they are prevented from exercising their freedom of thought, and from expressing their subjectivity. All this affects their psychological health, and can impair performance. 

The Complex Process of Profiling & Diagnosing Autism

According to the NHS (2019), ‘being autistic does not mean you have an illness or disease. It means your brain works in a different way from other people’. The core characteristics of autism are: (1) poor social communication; (2) poor social interaction; (3) sensory processing differences; (4) sensory sensitivity; (5) repetitive behaviours; and (6) obsessions and fixations on special interests. These characteristics can vary, and some individuals show two or three, whilst others might be more severely affected (Lincoln College, 2022). This blog post will explore these core characteristics, the unofficial subtypes of autism, and the complex process of diagnosis.

Individuals experiencing the behavioural abnormalities, will show a fixation on specific activities, tools, toys, etc. They may use these objects in particular ways. Furthermore, they may engage in repetitive behaviours such as hand flapping or spinning around, might become upset if their routine is disrupted, and will insist on maintaining consistency. Moreover, they might have unusual sensory interests, either a high or low tolerance to pain, unpredictable verbal outbursts, and might become upset at sensory intrusions. Finally, they might also engage in risky or self-injurious behaviour. 

Individuals experiencing communication difficulties might have a delayed language development, speech difficulties and/or reliance on alternative communication methods, high levels of articulation, literal interpretation of words (i.e. lack of understanding of jokes or sarcasm), problems starting and maintaining conversations, stereotyped and repetitive use of phrases, a monotonous voice tone, and poor interpretation of body language or other forms of non-verbal communication. 

Individuals experiencing social difficulties might struggle to form and sustain friendships, might show a lack of interest in social activities, might engage in inappropriate social responses, might have a lack of awareness of boundaries, might reject expressions of affection such as hugging, might prefer to role play,  and might be naive, suggestible and overly trusty of others. 

The Unofficial Subtypes of Autism

Due to current diagnostic manuals such as the DSM-V (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and ICD-11 (World Health Organisation, 2019), individuals are generally given a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) regardless of their profiles. Yet, there are unofficial categories used by the autistic community to understand differences better.

Individuals categorised as having Asperger’s syndrome tend to have a higher than average I.Q., and unlike other forms of autism, no speech or cognitive difficulties. However, interpersonal difficulties are prevalent for them, as they struggle to communicate and interact with others. Yet, the symptoms are invisible and difficult to spot. They may also have pathologies which affect their day to day life (Lincoln College, 2022). Asperger’s syndrome is no longer diagnosed (McCrimmon, 2018) but it is still generally seen as a subtype of autism. It is also believed that Asperger’s syndrome is a form of high-functioning autism (HFA) which according to Lincoln College (2022) entails a delay in development, an inability to read facial expressions, a hypersensitivity to light and noise, and a desire for socialisation without understanding how to effectively do it. Nevertheless, HFA is not diagnosable, although it is also recognised by autistic populations. 

Individuals categorised as having Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) tend to have intersubjective difficulties and to avoid the demands of everyday life. This profile is not an universally recognised form of autism by healthcare professionals, however, it is still generally used by autistic populations. According to the National Autistic Society (n.d.), an individual with this profile ‘(a) resists and avoids the ordinary demands of life; (b) uses social strategies as part of avoidance, for example, distracting, giving excuses; (c) appears sociable, but lacks some understanding; (d) experiences excessive mood swings and impulsivity; (e) appears comfortable in role play and pretence; and (f) displays obsessive behaviour that is often focused on other people’. Furthermore, Lincoln College (2022) states that these individuals have an anxiety-based desire to remain in control all the time, and can become aggressive if they feel they are not in control. They also seem to get stressed out if anything is expected of them. However, if they feel comfortable, they seem normal. 

Individuals labelled as having Kanner’s Autism also known as ‘Classic Autism’ are described as having impairments in communication, and a fixation on activities with restrictive or repetitive behaviour such as hand flapping. The criteria for this autism profile is: (1) an impairment in the use of non-verbal skills, poor eye contact, and an inability to interpret body language; (2) inability to make and maintain friendships; (3) inability to enjoy interests or share activities; (4) inability to respond appropriately to emotion in others; (5) delay in, or complete lack of language development; (6) repetitive use of language; (7) fixation on a particular interest; (8) inflexibility to change routines; and (9) repetitive physical movements (Lincoln College, 2022). However, this is not diagnosable. 

Individuals diagnosed as having atypical autism are those whose pattern of behaviour fits most but not all of the criteria for other forms of autism. It can often be undiagnosed for many years as individuals tend to be given this label later in life. 

Finally, individuals categorised as having Savant syndrome have skills which are uncommon to most people, as well as having the general characteristics of autism. Among the extraordinary abilities seen in savant autism are being able to mentally solve complex mathematical problems, having great memory for specific details of something, high quality artistic skills, and outstanding musical talent. 

Diagnosing Autism

The advantage  of diagnosing Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is that individuals and their families can find as much information as possible about the condition and engage in psychoeducation, which can foster a sense of relief. The diagnosis might help the individuals have more clarity about their difficulties, and might give them more insight into potential comorbidities or wrong diagnoses. Moreover, a personalised care plan with strategies can be devised for ongoing support in all sectors. Nevertheless, a disadvantage of diagnosis is that individuals have to live with the stigma (i.e. negative stereotyping) associated with psychiatric labels, and how the label can affect their relationships and lead to prejudice and discrimination. Furthermore, another disadvantage is that individuals might become depressed with the fact that autism has no cure. They might also experience more adverse circumstances as a result of having a diagnosed disability, and all these negative variables might lead the individual to internalise the label and to embrace the maladaptive behaviours associated with the label which shapes their identity (Lincoln College, 2022). 

Diagnosis is usually done through a person’s GP; however, a paediatrician, a speech and language therapist, an educational psychologist, and/or a specialist psychologist might also need to be involved; and sometimes this multidisciplinary approach can take years before a diagnosis is given (Lincoln College, 2022). Moreover, information for diagnosis is also gathered from relatives, teachers and friends of the individual presenting with symptoms. The individual might be observed as he or she conducts activities and skills might be tested. Furthermore, professionals working with people with autism must take on board the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE; n.d.) guidelines. These specifically state that anyone working with autism should be skilled and competent and have tactful communication skills (Lincoln College, 2022). 

There are several factors that influence the diagnosis of autism: (1) culture— behaviours classed as ‘abnormal’ by a society might bring attention and concern to others. Some countries might perceive different behaviours as ‘symptomatic’, whilst others might see the same behaviours as completely ‘normal’. Also, stigma might become a barrier to diagnosis; (2) age— even though the symptoms of autism can be spotted when the individual is 2-3 years old, many professionals refuse to make a diagnosis until later on. However, some professionals are also reluctant to diagnose adults; (3) sex— males tend to get a diagnosis of autism more than females. Some believe that this is due to how different the characteristics manifest, with girls being more able to hide the symptoms; (4) parental attitudes— some children might not get diagnosed because their parents cannot effectively spot the symptoms, or they might ignore these manifestations out of fear of being judged. Alternatively, parents might insist to the family GP that the child has a problem even if such is not the case; (5) coexisting conditions— autism often has mental and physical comorbidities, making it more difficult to pinpoint the exact cause for specific behaviours, and making diagnosis more complicated; and (6) genetic factors— autism has a genetic link that runs in families. 

Furthermore, there are also barriers to diagnosing autism such as a lack of local services for autistic people, which means that a formal diagnosis with the necessary multidisciplinary specialists is not always possible as a GP might have limited knowledge of the condition. This might subsequently lead to individuals not being diagnosed for a long time, which might prevent them from wanting a diagnosis in the future. It can also lead to individuals not having a documented developmental history, which can affect the process of diagnosis.  Moreover, another barrier to diagnosing autism is how subtle some of the symptoms can be, and how subjective the interpretation of these symptoms also is (Lincoln College, 2022).  

References

American Psychiatric Association (2013a) Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.

Lincoln College (2022) ‘The diagnosis and characteristics of autism’, TQUK Level 3 Certificate in Understanding Autism [Online]. Available at https://lincolncollege.equal-online.com/courseplayer/autisml3/?ls=8663048&cpid=223390  (accessed 22 February 2022). 

McCrimmon, A. (2018 ‘What happened to Asperger’s syndrome?’, The Conversation, 8 March [Online]. Available at https://theconversation.com/what-happened-to-aspergers-syndrome-89836 (accessed 22 February 2022). 

National Autistic Society (n.d.) ‘PDA — a guide for parents and carers’ [Online]. Available at https://www.autism.org.uk/advice-and-guidance/topics/diagnosis/pda/parents-and-carers (accessed 22 February 2022). 

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (n.d.) ‘Autism’ [Online]. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/conditions-and-diseases/mental-health-and-behavioural-conditions/autism (accessed 23 February 2022). 

NHS (2019) ‘What is autism?’, 18 April [Online]. Available at https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/autism/what-is-autism/ (accessed 10 March 2022). 

World Health Organisation (2019) ‘International Classification of Diseases – 11th Revision’ [Online]. Available at https://icd.who.int/en (accessed 22 February 2022). 

Photo by Polina Kovaleva

Categories
Forensic Psychology

The Health Impacts of Domestic Abuse

Domestic abuse takes a toll on victims, and they experience all sorts of maladies as a result of the abuse they were put through, both in the short term and in the long term. This blog post will inform the reader about the health impacts that domestic abuse can have on adults and children. 

Impacts on Adults

Individuals affected by domestic abuse often present with depression, and are more susceptible to suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other stress and anxiety disorders, insomnia, and eating disorders. They also have low self-esteem and confidence levels. Furthermore, domestic abuse can change the victim’s behavioural temperament permanently, especially when the victim is a child. Research shows that when children are abused, as early as adolescence they can engage in hypersexual, promiscuous, or disinhibited behaviours, as well as risky behaviours such as using illicit drugs, drinking heavily, and/or smoking. 

Moreover, women who were sexually abused as children find it particularly difficult to connect in appropriate or safe ways, and are more prone to allowing abusive relationships to enter their lives. It is believed that this happens because these traumatised women cannot distinguish between men who show affection, and men who make sexual advances. For instance, they may think that expressions of affection or support are sexual advances and might respond sexually, and/or might think that expressions of sexual desire are ‘love’ and respond romantically.  What this tells us is that individuals already affected by mental health problems as a result of their traumas are more vulnerable to being domestically abused, and likewise those experiencing domestic abuse are more likely to get mental health problems. 

Domestic abuse can cause physical illness whether as a result of actual bodily harm (ABH), the stress associated with the abuse, and/or risky behaviours. ABH includes cuts, bruises, burns, bites, broken bones or teeth, as well as severe head injuries and damage to the eyes, ears, chest and abdomen. All these forms of ABH can consequently lead to long-term illness, disability, and/or death. If the victim is pregnant, domestic abuse can trigger a miscarriage or harm the fetus. Furthermore, sexual abuse can damage the genital, pelvic, and urinary areas whether through brute force or the transmission of infections. Risky behaviour can also lead to sexually transmitted diseases, self-injury, as well as other health problems associated with substance abuse. 

Physical symptoms worsen mental health problems, and mental health problems also worsen physical symptoms. This is why people who already have disabilities-especially women- are more likely to be abused than non-disabled individuals due to their vulnerability regardless of whether the disability is motor, mental, or intellectual (SafeLives, n.d.). Perpetrators see vulnerability as an opportunity, and seek to exploit this deliberately. 

All this is without mentioning yet the health impacts of female genital mutilation (FGM) which are devastating. Not only can FGM lead to all of the above mental health symptoms, it can also lead to tremendous physical impairments such as severe and long-term pain, infections, difficulty in walking or having sex; bleeding, cysts and abscesses from the wounds; difficulty urinating or experiencing incontinence, life-threatening complications during pregnancy and childbirth, infertility, and/or death. 

Impacts on Children

Children are very vulnerable to distress, and this is why experiencing and/or witnessing domestic abuse can be severely traumatising for them. They might develop symptoms of anxiety and depression, have nightmares or intrusive flashbacks, clinical fear, behaviour that challenges, regression, aggression, withdrawal or lack of engagement, low self-esteem, self-harm, suicidal ideation, risky behaviours, and eating disorders. Indeed, when children are made to feel scared, confused and powerless; this can be introjected and a reaction formation can happen leading children to behave in similar ways to the perpetrator. 

Children also experience physical symptoms when they have been exposed to domestic abuse. They might experience similar symptoms to adults such as injuries that can cause concussion or brain damage. They undergo epigenetic changes with every adverse experience, and they might become neglected, underfed, and unwashed if they are in an abusive environment. Moreover, they may present with bed-wetting difficulties, stomach and headaches, and a disrupted circadian rhythm. They might also present with self-injury, or injury obtained through risky behaviours.  

Finally, children go through very intense transitions after domestic abuse has been exposed. They might have to move home, and away from friends. They might also experience a disruption to their education. They might develop an attachment trauma after they lose the abusive family member who they might not have perceived as abusive. They might find the conviction of the abusive relative traumatic. They may experience a change in quality of life, and in the worst case scenarios they might be separated from their parents and placed in foster care. All these factors increase the chances of developing health problems. 

References

SafeLives (n.d.) ‘Spotlight #2: Disabled people and domestic abuse’ [Online]. Available at https://safelives.org.uk/knowledge-hub/spotlights/spotlight-2-disabled-people-and-domestic-abuse (accessed 21 February 2022).